Keywords: knowledge mapping methodology, School of Business and Management ITB, knowledge economy.
Knowledge intensive organizations increasingly face similar conditions with a strong connection between the individual organization?s ability to mobilize, apply, and disseminate knowledge resources on the one hand and their competitiveness and survival on the other. The academic institute is among those environments facing rapid change as a result of new demands for commercialization of knowledge, a need for more efficient utilization of human resurces due to cut-backs in basic funding, as well as the introduction of new accountability measures from government . One way to handle rapid change in academic department is by implementing knowledge mapping as part of knowledge management implementation.
Knowledge mapping is a process of conducting surveys, measuring, and linking of information, knowledge, competency of individuals and groups within an organization (Hilton, 2002). Knowledge mapping is a process so that organizations can identify and classify knowledge assets within the organization (Vestal, 2002). Knowledge map illustrates how knowledge flows within an organization . Knowledge map acts as a “snapshot in time” to help organizations understand what knowledge they have and where the relationship is weak. It also revealed individual knowledge or skill whatever is essential to the process or focus area. Knowledge maps can explicitly demonstrate the knowledge needed to achieve successful business processes, as well as gaps in knowledge and relationships needed to be improved.
Knowledge maps have several types of which enterprise knowledge map, cross-functional knowledge map, and process knowledge map. Enterprise and cross-functional knowledge map used for the Strategic level, while the process knowledge is used to map the tactical level. Knowledge Process mapping is a method of analysis to define the required knowledge and knowledge available to support business processes (W. Vestal, APQC, 2002)
Currently, the process represents the language of business in general. In order to simplify the creation of a classification system for knowledge, many practitioners agree that knowledge must be applied as a layer map to map process. This shows the flow of knowledge and gaps in knowledge (APQC,2009). Basically, process knowledge map contains information about the organization of knowledge. It describes who has what knowledge (tacit), where knowledge is (infrastructure), and how knowledge is transferred or disseminated (social). (IBM Global Services -Technique Paper, 2000)
Organizations use knowledge maps to a number of different reasons. Some organizations combine hunting firms to find internal and external resources. Other companies use knowledge maps to identify opportunities to share knowledge or knowledge barriers in cross-functional work groups. Many companies use knowledge mapping before forming communities of practice or the After-Action Reviews(W. Vestal, APQC, 2002). In educational organization, there are several researchers who used qualitative research to establish a knowledge map (e.g. Kim et al, 2003; Hellstrom and Husted, 2004; Ven den Berg and Popecu, 2005; Liebowitz, 2005; Ermein e al, 2007; Driessen et al, 2007; Okada and Shum, 2008) . Qualitative research is not the only method to establish a knowledge map. Other researchers develop mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) to establish a knowledge map (e.g. Barrosso,2005; Ermine, et al,2006).
As an educational institution, the School of Business and Management ITB needs to capture and deploy its knowledge inside the organization. School of Business and Management ITB also needs to identify critical knowledge that required to develop a strategy for competitive advantage, implementation of recruitment and training of lecturers. School of Business and Management ITB is going to implement knowledge management program, therefore knowledge mapping is needed as a reference for the implementation of activities that are part of the knowledge management in School of Business and Management ITB.
This study aims to develop methodologies Knowledge Mapping in education and teaching by taking a case study of School of Business and Management ITB in order to identify critical knowledge in the institution. Knowledge Map in SBM may become material in the preparation of Knowledge Map ITB. The result will be valuable foundation for further research in Knowledge mapping, both for academic institution and also research institutions, to gain their competitive advantages in the knowledge economy.
Badriyah, Mila Jamilah Khatun
Master student in Master of Science in Management
Tjakraatmadja, Jann Hidajat, Prof. Dr. MSIE,
Head of Center of Knowledge for Business Competitiveness
Martini, Lenny, ST. MSM
Research and Teaching Staff
Presented at Pan-Pacific Conference XXIX ?Collaboration and Co-creation for Innovation? May 24-27, 2012. Haikou, Hainan Island, China